9. What is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
A: Populations that meet these conditions are not evolving:

- Very large population: no genetic drift
- No emigration or immigration: no gene flow
- No mutations: no new alleles added
- Random mating: no sexual selection
- No natural selection: all traits must equally aid in survival

10. What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation and what does it variables represent?
A: Values predicted by the equation are those that would be present if the population is in equilibrium.
p = frequency of dominant allele
q = frequency of recessive allele

11. What are the five factors that led to evolution?
A: -Genetic Drift: allele frequencies can change due to chance alone

- Gene flow: movement of allele from one population to another changes allele frequencies in each population

- Mutation: new alleles form through mutation  creating genetic variation

- Sexual selection: certain traits improve mating success and alleles for these traits increase in frequency.

- Natural selection: certain traits may be an advantage for survival and alleles for these traits increase in frequency.

12. What is speciation?
A: It is the rise of two or more species from one existing species.

13. What are 4 ways in which populations get isolated?
A: -Behavioral isolation:  differences in courtship or mating behaviors

- Geographic isolation: physical barriers that divide a population

- Temporal isolation: timing prevents reproduction between populations

- Reproductive isolation: members of different population can successfully mate with each other

14. What is "random" and what is "chance" in science?
A: Mutations and genetic drifts are random resulting in genetic variation while natural selection is when individuals with favorable traits have a better "chance" of survival.

15. What is the difference between convergent and divergent evolution?
A: Evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species is called convergent evolution while divergent evolution is when closely related species evolve in different directions.

16. Briefly describe co-evolution and evolutionary arms races.
A: -Coevolution: two or more species respond to change in each other
- Evolutionary arms races: each species responds to pressure from other through better adaptations over many generations

17. What are two types of extinction?
A: -Background extinctions: elimination of a species occurring at a continuous but low rate

-Mass extinction: results in destruction of many species suddenly due to catastrophic event

18. What is punctuated equilibrium?
A: They are bursts of evolutionary activity followed by long periods of stability.

19. What is adaptive radiation?

A: It is the diversification of one ancestral species into many descendent species.
7/9/2012 09:49:19

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