English Revolution
* Childless Queen Elizabeth of the Tudor dynasty died in 1603 and King James VI of Scotland ( aka James I) of the Stuart dynasty took over.
James I
- Believed strongly in the divine right of kings
~ This alienated the Parliament which, during the Tudor's rule, worked along with the King.
- Strongly defended the Anglican (Catholic) church
~ Most of England's gentry and significant part of Parliament were puritans.  They weren't happy with this.

Charles I (son of James I)
- Also believed in divine-right monarchy
- Tried to impose more catholic rituals
~ Puritans are mad!

* Grievances mounted until England slipped into civil war (1642 - 1648)

Oliver Cromwell
-> created New Model Army composed of extreme Puritans who believed they fought for God
-> won the war due to well trained soldiers and new military tactics
-> In 1649, Parliament abolished monarch and House of Lords and proclaimed England a commonwealth
-> Oliver, unable to work with Parliament, dispersed it by force and established a military dictatorship
-> He died in 1658 and army restored monarchy under Charles II

Charles II (Son of Charles I) 1660 - 1685
- sympathetic to Catholicisim
- issued Declaration of Indulgence that suspended laws that Parliament had passed against Catholics and Puritans
- Parliament forced king to suspend the declaration

James II 1685 - 1688
-> As an open and devout catholic, he named Catholics to high positions in Government.
-> Parliament didn't rebel since he was an old man and his successors were his Protestant daughters.
-> However, as soon as a son was born to his Catholic wife, a group of prominent Englishmen invited William (husband of James' daughter Mary) to invade.
-> William and Mary invaded while James fled and England underwent its Glorious Revolution with barely any bloodshed.

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